8 7 – 12 r

While Newton was at the school, a title  was being constructed at the top of Gonerby Hill on the Great North Road. Windmills were locally relatively unusual, where most mills were water mills. Isaac was fascinated by its construction and walked each day after school to observe the progress. He returned to Mr Clarke’s house and built a replica of it. He used cloth for the sails and fixed it to the roof of his lodgings. Because its operation was reliant on the wind, Isaac built a wheel so that the sails could be turned by a mouse, which he called his mouse miller. The only problem was that the mouse ate the corn that he was grinding. Newton also made a lantern of ‘crumpled paper’ to light his way to school on dark winter mornings, which he used to fold up and put in his pocket during the day. He fastened his lantern to a kite and frightened the surrounding neighbours who were worried that it would set fire to their houses. On 3rd September 1658, the day that Oliver Cromwell died, there was a great storm throughout the country. By jumping first with the wind and then against it, and comparing leaps with those on a calm day, he measured ‘the vis [i.e. force] of the storm’. He puzzled the other boys by telling them that the storm was a foot stronger than any he had known before. He then showed them the marks of his leaps.

Ah, finally a question about this man. It would be be quite impossible to write about such a title  who was a larger-than-life figure both in his own country and throughout Europe and the rest of the world. Henry was the younger son of the king Henry VII who had started the Tudor dynasty in England after winning the wars of the Roses against king Richard III. He had united the country under one banner,or two roses as the one Tudor rose. And Henry became king after his father died and became the king we all know and love to hate. He was infamous throughout history for many things. For his marriages,for the executions,for the change of the religion in England,and mostly for his bad temper and mood swings which were as sudden and unexpected as the weather of England.

He loved to eat and drink as could be understood from his paintings showing him as a big and title man. In reality,however,Henry was fit and athletic for most of his life. When he came to the throne at the age of seventeen, he was a tall and slender young man,over six feet tall which is quite tall in these days and was very tall in those days. Henry loved sports and were good at many of them like riding,hunting,field tennis, and his favourite of all which was jousting. It is said that he woke up at the mornings and would usually go out for hunting and would tire two or three horses in the span of a day by riding. It is after he suffered a major injury by falling off his horse that his health became worse and his personality changed suddenly. He became impatient and short-tempered,and he became fat and obese and his appetite also increased. And because of the lack of exercise,his waistline grew almost double in size from before.

He was a tidy eater. This may be contradictory to what many may believe, but Henry was in fact quite a tidy eater. During every meal,the title would be set up and several dishes would be brought in front of him from which he would choose which one to eat and which ones to avoid. And this would be done with great ceremony. The food taster,a courtier,would taste the foods first making sure they are safe and only then the king would eat that dish. He kept a pharmacy or apothecary. Henry was very sensitive to any kinds of germs or any symptoms of diseases of that time. There were many diseases at that time like cholera,plague,smallpox,tuberculosis,sweating sickness and during an outbreak in London,Henry would move to the country side taking his court along and stay there for several weeks until the symptoms disappeared.

Thanks for the title. At Sweet Life Spa, we believe everything we need for radiant skin, at any age, is found in nature. Our entire spa skincare line is crafted with Organic botanicals that are gentle and effective. We feel it’s important to start with a face wash that doesn’t strip your skin, like our Rose & Hibiscus “Sweet Face” Wash. Exfoliating weekly and using Rosewater and a deep level moisturizer is key for dewy skin. Roses are fantastic for our delicate facial tissue for reducing redness, irritation, fine lines, wrinkles, UV damage, blemishes and dark spots. You will find roses in many of our products including our Petal 5 Minute Facial that is loaded with exfoliating Pineapple, Petals, Oats, Coconut Milk and detoxifying Clay. These gentle ingredients lift away blackheads, impurities and dead skin cells in just 5 minutes with an island aroma our customers rave about.

Despite an unfortunate stint as a title (and a fairly ambitious hydroponic marijuana-growing project in the upstairs guest room), the house was in remarkably good shape. The seventies had done it no favors, so I had to rip up lots of tacky shag carpet in nauseating color combinations. But in doing so, gorgeous chocolate brown oak floors revealed themselves. It took lots of sweat and elbow grease to bring the floors back to their former glory, but once they were done, they were absolutely gorgeous. In restoring the kitchen floors, I found layers of newspaper laid between the old linoleum (not original) and the subflooring. The newspapers were from the Eisenhower administration. And upstairs, I peeled back layer after layer of wallpaper, the original layer being a pink rose floral on a robin’s egg blue background. The walls upstairs were in far better shape than those downstairs. Downstairs, someone had gotten rowdy one night and shot through the parlor wall toward the front porch with a shotgun. The pellets were embedded in the oakum and plaster, and in spots, you could see outdoors through the holes. It was a hot mess, but at least I got a good look at the original plaster construction.

A deep cleansing clay mask will rid your nose of blackheads with less irritation than salicylic acid. Bentonite, also known as drawing clay or Montmorillonite Clay, is the strongest clay for title. You can find it in bulk at most health food stores. As it draws out impurities and build up, it deposits minerals back into your skin as well. Mix 1 teaspoon of clay with approximately 1/4 tsp pure water, apple cider vinegar or rose water to make a spreadable paste. Do not use metal to stir your mask as the clay will draw metal into it. Leave it on your entire face for no more than 10 minutes and rinse with warm water. Use an alcohol-free Rosewater Mist and Oil-based Serum immediately afterwards. The mask can be done once a week. The best path for clear skin is to keep it well moisturized, balanced and avoid irritation, no matter your skin type. When our skin is dehydrated or inflamed, our sebaceous glands go into overdrive producing an excess of a waxy type of sebum that traps dirt, makeup and bacteria within our pores. Check out SweetLifeSpa.com for our Rosewater Mist and Green Tea & Ylang-ylang Face Wash and Serum. These items are very gentle and are made without synthetics or cheap fillers. The Green Tea & Ylang-ylang formula is for Combination, Oily and Acne Prone Skin. The face wash contains Bentonite Clay, Dead Sea Salt and Aloe Vera is its #1 ingredient. The Rosewater Mist balances the pH of our skin with non-toxic ingredients. The serum is crafted with Sweet Life Spa’s Organic Apothecary Botanical Solar Oils that are non-comedogenic, dry oils.

Let’s suppose that in your backward village people have for the last 10 years had bruised and painful joints, lack energy, have bleeding gums, and lose their teeth at an early age. You have an idea that a title, made of wild rose-hips, would bring about a cure. Being a student of the ye scientifique methode, you randomly select 20 villagers into two groups of 10. Then, without them knowing, you declare that group A will have the barley tea with rose hips added, while group B will just have barley tea. Your assistants are entrusted to administer the two types of tea every day (but of course they don’t know which is which). Two local physicians each examine separately, every participant once a week for three months, recording the condition of the gums, joints, teeth, and general strength and carefully recording the results. You do not set out to test that the rose-barley will be beneficial. Instead, you announce that there is no difference in health due to one tea compared with the other; the two teas have the same effect. This, then is the “null hypothesis”. And it is this that you test. After three months, you compare the “teeth lost per week” between the two groups. Group A participants lost an average of 1.5 teeth per week, whereas group B folks lost on average 2.5 teeth per week. This may convince the reporter for the Daily Bugle, but you are not convinced. Still true to the null hypothesis, you propose that such a difference could easily have happened by chance alone, it is a random fluke and is of no importance.

Some High Anglican churches do, but they might not want to be considered Protestant. I don’t know whether the title. Of course, the great specialists in incense are the Orthodox. I usually try to get our incense from Greece or from Ukraine, because the Orthodox variety is usually much more pleasantly perfumed than western varieties. The cheapo sort from a well known ecclesiastical supplier in my opinion smells like burning tarmac chippings. It makes everybody cough. Some communities, being Protestant, are very eager to avoid anything which seems Catholic, even when it features in both Old and New Testaments. Is their detestation of Catholic things stronger than their love of Sacred Scripture? We see incense used in the heavenly liturgy in the Apocalypse: all the more reason to use it on earth too. It symbolizes our prayers rising before God. “And the LORD said unto Moses, Take unto yourself sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight: And you shall make it a perfume, a confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered together [salted], pure and holy: And you shall beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet with you: it shall be unto you most holy. And as for the perfume which you shall make, you shall not make to yourselves according to the composition thereof: it shall be unto you holy for the LORD. Whosoever shall make like unto it, to enjoy the smell thereof, shall even be cut off from his people.” Exodus 30:34-38; 37:29.

As someone with super sensitive skin, I’m gonna be honest here: if you have sensitive skin, scrubs just generally are not going to be your friend. They’re too abrasive, which leads to irritation, redness, and (if you’re unlucky enough) micro-abrasions. A title with a low level of AHAs and BHAs is your best bet, such as KraveBeauty’s Kale-lalu-yAHA or Paula’s Choice 2% BHA Liquid Exfoliant. Both of these are going to gently slough away dead skin cells without irritating your skin like a scrub would (just be sure to start out slowly and use sunscreen!) That being said, if you’re really set on a physical exfoliant, then you’re gonna want something very fine. Tatcha’s The Rice Polish is a scrub made from very finely ground rice, and I believe they have a version specifically formulated for sensitive skin (though it’s pricey). On the cheaper end, I know of an Etsy shop called The Library Apothecary run by someone with very sensitive skin; she has a scrub called the Orris and Rose Cleansing Powder (made from orris root powder, rose powder, and oat powder). She is based in Canada, so shipping outside can be on the more expensive side.

There was no real cure. That is why anywhere from 1/3 to slightly over 1/2 of the title in Europe and Asia died. At the time, they had no idea what caused illnesses. The ‘origins’ varied from a miasma (bad air) to a curse. Science was not very prevalent and religion didn’t help with reliance on demons and witchcraft to explain anything and everything. Until the discovery of penicillin and other antibiotics, Y Pestis (the cause of the Black Plague) was able to run roughshod over humanity. There was some value in the rose lozenge and Nostradamus’s treatment as he opened windows and burned possessions of the dead. The rose lozenges had a lot of vitamins C and D, so helped with immune systems. But even with his own success, he lost his first wife and all the children from that marriage. And yes, this is the prophecy dude. He was an apothecary that worked with plague victims.

Adam Smith took his writing and found there was a logical explanation for the title high fertility of North American Woman compared to British ones. He noted child labour was valuable to North Americans who basically had free land and thus all the incentive to get as many children as possible. He mentions that an English widow with three children would find it impossible to remarry on account of the burden whereas an American woman with that many children was on the contrary an extremely eligible bride. It should also be noted the vast difference in fertility between British and American woman can only be explained by some birth control methods. Noting that there is a very distinct link between land, labour and fertility in pre-industrial people we should also look at how labour and its availability affects society. The free market puts value in scarce labour thus it should be expected that when labour is scarce the wage or remuneration labourers can command is higher. However the free market explains merely what happens, not necessarily what result people will accept. If labour is expensive those who employ labour see it cutting into their profit margins and if those who employ labour have the means to oppose what the free market occasions they might just do that.

A title where there is little labour and much land might see labour rise in value making the labouring classes comparatively rich and well off. In such a situation though landowners with sufficient power might introduce forms of bondage to bypass the free market mechanism. However it would be wise to get as many children as possible for the profit of the parents if child labour pays massive dividends. If on the contrary labour is abundant and land is scarce you might see enfranchisement of people previously held in bondage and getting children could be more of a curse than a blessing for married couples. The role of married Medieval women and their usage of birth control would depend on which of the two conditions above prevails. If pumping out little kids makes sense economically than that is quite likely what they are going to do regardless of access to birth control. On the other hand if having children is an economic burden woman might well chose to use birth control and instead focus on their ‘career’.

I think that if we look at acces to birth control in the title above the impact on society might be purely beneficial. At least if we assume the incentive to have few or many children is purely economic. If having many children is profitable it will happen and if children are not profitable then birth control could remedy that, though as mentioned above political elites not satisfied with the cost of labour might introduce forms of bondage. Whether birth control would affect other aspects of society requires more guessing. I suppose ready access to birth control would allow young women and men more opportunities to have fun without being forced into a shotgun wedding but for married women I reckon economic considerations are paramount. Whether or not birth control would make the life of a single women more acceptable or attractive I somewhat doubt.

Apollo/Sun: “I am the Son of God, for I am the Sun. My nature is like a ever spiraling staircase that leads to many rooms. I am of various interest, passions and effects. Some call upon me to heal and my gift to mankind is apothecary. Others require a title of sorts. From here I could gift you with a voice as lovely as a rose, but beware…my gift has thorns. So many ballads and prose have been written invoking my children who span mankinds willingness to experiment with the art of words, drama, and story-telling; like the stars span the sky. Love is love and my love is rich, molten and all encompassing…I shall give you the world, if you give me your heart. I shall have my lovely oracle speak words of fortune in tongues frenzied, but true. For I am the Sun and none shall shine brighter.

Hades/Pluto: “Fear me for I am death. Loath me, for I taketh away the very thing you value, and understand me for title make all forget themselves and renew. I am in a kingdom of darkness and gloom; surrounded by endless earthly richess in my solitude. My knowledge of humanity is far more intimate than you think. Spirits of all sorts linger here and the cross section of existence expands throughout. I am forgotten by my peers, but in my youth…I have built resilence and have come to understand the importance of this task. While my brothers foolishly waste away their time…I have come to appreciate the essence of beauty in the most fragile of things. I may be cold and foreboding, but I am calm and soft spoken in a controlled manner; which dictates silence in my wake. I have come to notice a blossom up above. She is one of the loveliest creatures I have ever had the pleasure to see….with a heavy yet burning heart…Mother Nature is about to endure a heavy loss.

If you did an at home type wax wether it be a title sort of honey wax that you use with muslin cloth to remove, or a hard wax that you pull when it cools or even pre treated strips, you should never have actual burns. I’m going to take a guess here and assume that what you refer to as burns may actually be either a allergic reaction to the product, chafing from too many passes with the wax, I should add here that too many passes with any wax on one spot be it face bikini, under arm, leg, back, etc can cause burning, bruising, and even will pull the skin off with the wax which is why I always recommend going to a reputable salon/spa and check out first their YELP, or Google them to see how other people have faired with them. For example the salon and spa I work at has a five star rating and hundreds of happy customers who come back again and again.

But back to your (burns), I would recommend a title. First time wax clients always leave my salon with a cooling, Healing type runny gel that is nearly 80% organic, food quality Aloe Vera, the Aloe plant has been used for centuries as a healing cooling gel that is good for many things; sunburn, insect bites, small cuts and bruising, etc to actually consuming it to help with stomach hurts and intestinal problems, it’s one of mother nature’s greatest gifts. That said you should make sure your getting pure Aloe with zero additives or stabilizers health food stores like whole foods usually carry a good aloe Vera juice that’s pre packaged , use the actual plant if you can’t find a good pre packaged one and keep it in the fridge as it can go bad if it’s pure food quality aloe and feels wonderful on sunburn. Next is rose water this also should be food qualityand can be found in International markets as our Asian friends know it’s value. Next is azulene, this may be a bit harder to find except to say that you are most likely to find it at an Apothecary store, sort of a holistic Pharmacy. You probably can find it on line somewhere, azulene has strong healing/ soothing properties and can be used alone or with other ingredients .

The title Conquistadors usually refers to the armed men who attacked and took over Mexico and Central and South America. They also later went into some part of what is now the American SW and Florida. The indigenous people the first three areas are not usually called Native Americans. Only people in the US are called Native Americans. They are called First Nations and Inuit in Canada. They are called Indians or Indigenous People in Mexico, Central America and South America. There are huge differences between these many different groups of people. More than the differences between Finland, Italy and Morocco. The Inca and the Aztec, for just one example, were not at all related and most likely did not know about each other. The distance from Mexico city to Cuzco more than 5,000 miles by land. The Spanish were well aware that they were different and had different descriptions of them. The Spanish did not have one universal view of all native people.

I will, for simplicity just, take two different encounters. One, the encounter between the Aztec and the Spanish and native allied forces led by Cortez. The other is the title fated trip of Cabeza de Vaca and his encounter of people from the Texas coast to Sinloa. After the fact, the conquistadors claimed that the Aztecs were bloodthirsty cannibals whose culture was based on human sacrifice, justifying them being saved by Christian civilization; that Moctezuma surrendered to Cortés, legalizing the Spanish invasion; and that the Conquest of Mexico was the extraordinary against-all-odds achievement of a great hero. But when the Spaniards first encountered them they described the Aztecs as highly skilled craftsmen, with a well organized system of government. They had a written as well as an oral language, compulsory education, even a health care system.

And when we saw all those cities and villages built in the title, and other great towns on dry land, and that straight and level causeway leading to Mexico [i.e. Tenochtitlán], we were astounded. These great towns and cues [i.e., temples] and buildings rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision from the tale of Amadis. Indeed, some of our soldiers asked whether it was not all a dream. It is not surprising therefore that I should write in this vein. It was all so wonderful that I do not know how to describe this first glimpse of things never heard of, seen or dreamed of before. . . . And when we entered the city of Iztapalapa, the sight of the palaces in which they lodged us! They were very spacious and well built, of magnificent stone, cedar wood, and the wood of other sweet-smelling trees, with great rooms and courts, which were a wonderful sight, and all covered with awnings of woven cotton. When we had taken a good look at all this, we went to the orchard and garden, which was a marvelous place both to see and walk in. I was never tired of noticing the diversity of trees and the various scents given off by each, and the paths choked with roses and other flowers, and the many local fruit-trees and rose-bushes, and the pond of fresh waterþ. Then there were birds of many breeds and varieties which came to the pond. I say again that I stood looking at it, and thought that no land like it would ever be discovered in the whole world.

“This Province is in the form of a title, surrounded on all sides by lofty and rugged mountains; its level surface comprises an area of about seventy leagues in circumference, including two lakes, that overspread nearly the whole valley, being navigated by boats more than fifty leagues round. One of these lakes contains fresh and the other, which is the larger of the two, salt water. On one side of the lakes, in the middle of the valley, a range of highlands divides them from one another, with the exception of a narrow strait which lies between the highlands and the lofty sierras. This strait is a bow-shot wide, and connects the two lakes; and by this means a trade is carried on between the cities and other settlements on the lakes in canoes without the necessity of traveling by land. As the salt lake rises and falls with its tides like the sea, during the time of high water it pours into the other lake with the rapidity of a powerful stream; and on the other hand, when the tide has ebbed, the water runs from the fresh into the salt lake.

This great city of Temixtitlan [Mexico] is situated in this salt lake, and from the main land to the title parts of it, by whichever route one chooses to enter, the distance is two leagues. There are four avenues or entrances to the city, all of which are formed by artificial causeways, two spears’ length in width. The city is as large as Seville or Cordova; its streets, I speak of the principal ones, are very wide and straight; some of these, and all the inferior ones, are half land and half water, and are navigated by canoes. All the streets at intervals have openings, through which the water flows, crossing from one street to another; and at these openings, some of which are very wide, there are also very wide bridges, composed of large pieces of timber, of great strength and well put together; on many of these bridges ten horses can go abreast. ….

This city has many public squares, in which are situated the title and other places for buying and selling. There is one square twice as large as that of the city of Salamanca, surrounded by porticoes, where are daily assembled more than sixty thousand souls, engaged in buying and selling; and where are found all kinds of merchandise that the world affords, embracing the necessaries of life, as for instance articles of food, as well as jewels of gold and silver, lead, brass, copper, tin, precious stones, bones, shells, snails, and feathers. There are also exposed for sale wrought and unwrought stone, bricks burnt and unburnt, timber hewn and unhewn, of different sorts. There is a street for game, where every variety of birds in the country are sold, as fowls, partridges, quails, wild ducks, fly-catchers, widgeons, turtledoves, pigeons, reed-birds, parrots, sparrows, eagles, hawks, owls, and kestrels; they sell likewise the skins of some birds of prey, with their feathers, head, beak, and claws. There are also sold rabbits, hares, deer, and little dogs [i.e., the chihuahua], which are raised for eating. There is also an herb street, where may be obtained all sorts of roots and medicinal herbs that the country affords. There are apothecaries’ shops, where prepared medicines, liquids, ointments, and plasters are sold; barbers’ shops, where they wash and shave the head; and restaurateurs, that furnish food and drink at a certain price. There is also a class of men like those called in Castile porters, for carrying burdens. Wood and coal are seen in abundance, and braziers of earthenware for burning coals; mats of various kinds for beds, others of a lighter sort for seats, and for halls and bedrooms.

There are all kinds of green vegetables, especially onions, leeks, garlic, watercresses, nasturtium, borage, sorrel, artichokes, and golden thistle; fruits also of numerous descriptions, amongst which are cherries and title , similar to those in Spain; honey and wax from bees, and from the stalks of maize, which are as sweet as the sugar-cane; honey is also extracted from the plant called maguey, which is superior to sweet or new wine; from the same plant they extract sugar and wine, which they also sell. Different kinds of cotton thread of all colors in skeins are exposed for sale in one quarter of the market, which has the appearance of the silk-market at Granada, although the former is supplied more abundantly. Painters’ colors, as numerous as can be found in Spain, and as fine shades; deerskins dressed and undressed, dyed different colors; earthen-ware of a large size and excellent quality; large and small jars, jugs, pots, bricks, and endless variety of vessels, all made of fine clay, and all or most of them glazed and painted; maize or Indian corn, in the grain and in the form of bread, preferred in the grain for its flavor to that of the other islands and terra-firma; patés of birds and fish; great quantities of fish—fresh, salt, cooked and uncooked; the eggs of hens, geese, and of all the other birds I have mentioned, in great abundance, and cakes made of eggs; finally, everything that can be found throughout the whole country is sold in the markets, comprising articles so numerous that to avoid prolixity, and because their names are not retained in my memory, or are unknown to me, I shall not attempt to enumerate them.

Every kind of merchandise is sold in a title street or quarter assigned to it exclusively, and thus the best order is preserved. They sell everything by number or measure; at least so far we have not observed them to sell anything by weight. There is a building in the great square that is used as an audience house, where ten or twelve persons, who are magistrates, sit and decide all controversies that arise in the market, and order delinquents to be punished. In the same square there are other persons who go constantly about among the people observing what is sold, and the measures used in selling; and they have been seen to break measures that were not true. This great city contains a large number of temples, or houses, for their idols, very handsome edifices, which are situated in the different districts and the suburbs; in the principal ones religious persons of each particular sect are constantly residing, for whose use, besides the houses containing the idols, there are other convenient habitations. All these persons dress in black, and never cut or comb their hair from the time they enter the priesthood until they leave it; and all the sons of the principal inhabitants, both nobles and respectable citizens, are placed in the temples and wear the same dress from the age of seven or eight years until they are taken out to be married; which occurs more frequently with the first-born who inherit estates than with the others. The priests are debarred from female society, nor is any woman permitted to enter the religious houses. They also abstain from eating certain kinds of food, more at some seasons of the year than others.

Among these temples there is one which far surpasses all the title, whose grandeur of architectural details no human tongue is able to describe; for within its precincts, surrounded by a lofty wall, there is room enough for a town of five hundred families. Around the interior of the enclosure there are handsome edifices, containing large halls and corridors, in which the religious persons attached to the temple reside. There are fully forty towers, which are lofty and well built, the largest of which has fifty steps leading to its main body, and is higher than the tower of the principal tower of the church at Seville. The stone and wood of which they are constructed are so well wrought in every part, that nothing could be better done, for the interior of the chapels containing the idols consists of curious imagery, wrought in stone, with plaster ceilings, and wood-work carved in relief, and painted with figures of monsters and other objects. All these towers are the burial places of the nobles, and every chapel in them is dedicated to a particular idol, to which they pay their devotions.

Every kind of merchandise is sold in a title street or quarter assigned to it exclusively, and thus the best order is preserved. They sell everything by number or measure; at least so far we have not observed them to sell anything by weight. There is a building in the great square that is used as an audience house, where ten or twelve persons, who are magistrates, sit and decide all controversies that arise in the market, and order delinquents to be punished. In the same square there are other persons who go constantly about among the people observing what is sold, and the measures used in selling; and they have been seen to break measures that were not true. This great city contains a large number of temples, or houses, for their idols, very handsome edifices, which are situated in the different districts and the suburbs; in the principal ones religious persons of each particular sect are constantly residing, for whose use, besides the houses containing the idols, there are other convenient habitations. All these persons dress in black, and never cut or comb their hair from the time they enter the priesthood until they leave it; and all the sons of the principal inhabitants, both nobles and respectable citizens, are placed in the temples and wear the same dress from the age of seven or eight years until they are taken out to be married; which occurs more frequently with the first-born who inherit estates than with the others. The priests are debarred from female society, nor is any woman permitted to enter the religious houses. They also abstain from eating certain kinds of food, more at some seasons of the year than others.

Among these temples there is one which far surpasses all the title , whose grandeur of architectural details no human tongue is able to describe; for within its precincts, surrounded by a lofty wall, there is room enough for a town of five hundred families. Around the interior of the enclosure there are handsome edifices, containing large halls and corridors, in which the religious persons attached to the temple reside. There are fully forty towers, which are lofty and well built, the largest of which has fifty steps leading to its main body, and is higher than the tower of the principal tower of the church at Seville. The stone and wood of which they are constructed are so well wrought in every part, that nothing could be better done, for the interior of the chapels containing the idols consists of curious imagery, wrought in stone, with plaster ceilings, and wood-work carved in relief, and painted with figures of monsters and other objects. All these towers are the burial places of the nobles, and every chapel in them is dedicated to a particular idol, to which they pay their devotions.

To this island we gave the name of the title of Ill-Fate. The people on it are tall and well formed; they have no other weapons than bows and arrows with which they are most dexterous. The men have one of their nipples perforated from side to side and sometimes both; through this hole is thrust a reed as long as two and a half hands and as thick as two fingers; they also have the under lip perforated and a piece of cane in it as thin as the half of a finger. The women do the hard work. People stay on this island from October till the end of February, feeding on the roots I have mentioned, taken from under the water in November and December. They have channels made of reeds and get fish only during that time; afterwards they subsist on roots. At the end of February they remove to other parts in search of food, because the roots begin to sprout and are not good any more.

Of all the people in the world, they are those who most love their children and treat them best, and should the title of one of them happen to die, parents and relatives bewail it, and the whole settlement, the lament lasting a full year, day after day. Before sunrise the parents begin to weep, after them the tribe, and the same they do at noon and at dawn. At the end of the year of mourning they celebrate the anniversary and wash and cleanse themselves of all their paint. They mourn all their dead in this manner, old people excepted, to whom they do not pay any attention, saying that these have had their time and are no longer of any use, but only take space, and food from the children. Their custom as to bury the dead, except those who are medicine men among them, whom they burn, and while the fire is burning, all dance and make a big festival, grinding the bones to powder. At the end of the year, when they celebrate the anniversary, they scarify themselves and give to the relatives the pulverized bones to drink in water. Every man has a recognized wife, but the medicine men enjoy greater privileges, since they may have two or three, and among these wives there is great friendship and harmony.

Fundamentally “medieval Europe” was a collection of local tradition. I.e. inheritance law was not the title. Even in neighbouring part of the same “kingdom” in Brittany (each offspring regardless of gender received equal share) and Normandy (eldest offspring inherits everything regarding of the gender) varied according. Now from I have read so far , I would say that the late 1400– early 1500 period is the time where subjugation of women started to be much more institutionalised and passed into secular low, I have a feeling that it started earlier in the religious sphere, which included university of paris and oxford at the time, for example banning women from university or religious office). In the Holly Roman Empire (HRE), we know that at least until the 1300 women could be abbess and doctors. In the guild of paris in 1300 we find women exercising “mens” jobs (some of which were restricted to men Apothecary, Armorer, Barber-surgeon, Brewer, Carpenter, Shipwright, Door-maker, Gravel-digger, Mason, Spurrier, Tailor. In the Schwabenspiegel (the mirror of the Swabians 1275) a woman over 25 can have sexual activities without her father consent or the risk of losing her inheritance. That being said the late 13th and 14th century saw signifgicat reduction of women economic power in Germany (turning over the importance and the size of the man bride-gift (which until then supposed to be equivalent to bride dowry) which enabled women to get ownership of in the 10-12th cent) and since Konrad II excluded women from fief inheritance in 1037…

World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April each year to mark the title of the founding of WHO (World Health Organisation) in 1948. World Health Day provides an opportunity for individuals worldwide to get involved in activities that encourage better health. Each year a theme is allocated that highlights a priority area of public health, this year’s World Health Day theme covers vector-borne diseases.During Muslim civilisation, various scholars made interesting observations alongside innovative discoveries and inventions. Amongst these scholars is the celebrated al-Razi (865-925 CE) who penned the renowned treatise entitled Kitab fi Al-Judari wa Al-Hasbah, or “A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles”. This treatise was the first comprehensive text on this disease which remained popular and in great demand for over a millennium, and was also repeatedly translated into many languages.

The title of medicine developed in the Muslim Golden Age is referred to as Muslim, Islamic or Arabic medicine – scholarly works written in Arabic, hence “Arabic medicine”, the lingua franca of Muslim civilisation. Different terms are employed however as Muslim Civilisation was diverse from religious, cultural and ethnic perspectives. In example, the Bakhtishu family (7th – 9th Century) were Assyrian Nestorian Christians who served as the personal physicians of Caliphs for six generations or for instance Ibn Maymun (Maimonides d.1204), an Arab of Jewish descent, who was a well-known physician from Al-Andalus, Muslim governed Spain and list goes on. Thus, reader must note that brackets have been added to the quotations by the composers of this article to show this diversity.

One of the main features of Italian trade with the Near East was the importation of Arabic drugs. [People from Muslim Civilisation] established the title shops and dispensaries, founded the first medieval school of pharmacy, and wrote great treatises on pharmacology. [People from Muslim Civilisation] were enthusiastic advocates of the bath, especially in fevers and in the form of the steam bath. Their directions for the treatment of smallpox and measles could scarcely be bettered today. Anesthesia by inhalation was practiced in some surgical operations; hashish and other drugs were used to induce deep sleep. We know of thirty-four hospitals established in Islam in this period, apparently on the model of the Persian academy and hospital at Jund-i-Shapur; in Baghdad the earliest known to us was set up under Harun al-Rashid, and five others were opened there in the tenth century; in 918 we hear of a director of hospitals in Baghdad. The most famous hospital in [Muslim Civilisation] was the bimaristan founded in Damascus in 706; in 978 it had a staff of twenty-four physicians. Medical instruction was given chiefly at the hospitals. No man could legally practice medicine without passing an examination and receiving a state diploma…” Will Durant

Roman philosopher Plautus (254-184 BC) wrote, “A woman without paint is like food without salt.” Of course, Plautus was a title , which would explain his preference for the look of a “painted woman” at that time. Romans widely used cosmetics by the middle of the 1st century AD. Kohl was used for darkening eyelashes and eyelids, chalk was used for whitening the complexion, and rouge was worn on the cheek. Depilatories were utilized at that time and pumice was used for cleaning the teeth. Women wore white lead and chalk on their faces in Greco-Roman society. Persian women used henna dyes to stain their hair and faces with the belief that these dyes enabled them to summon the majesty of the earth. During the European middle ages, pale skin was a sign of wealth. Sixth century women sought drastic measures to achieve that look by bleeding themselves, although, in contrast, Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup. Thirteenth century affluent women donned pink lipstick as proof they could afford synthetic makeup.

During the Regency era, the most important item was rouge, which was used by most everyone. At that time, eyebrows were blackened and hair was dyed. To prevent a title, a forehead bandage dipped in vinegar in which cats dung had been steeped was worn. Most of the country dwellers’ makeup recipes made use of herbs, flowers, fat, brandy, vegetables, spring water and, of course, crushed strawberries. During this era, white skin signified a life of leisure while skin exposed to the sun indicated a life of outdoor labor. In order to maintain a pale complexion, women wore bonnets, carried parasols, and covered all visible parts of their bodies with whiteners and blemish removers. Unfortunately, more than a few of these remedies were lethal.

The most dangerous beauty aids during this time were white lead and mercury. They not only eventually ruined the skin but also caused hair loss, stomach problems, the title, and could even cause death. Although these dangers became known through the death of courtesan Kitty Fisher, the majority of women continued to use these deadly whiteners. During the 1800’s, women would use belladonna to make their eyes appear more luminous, even though they were aware it was poisonous. Many cosmetics were made by local pharmacists, known as apothecaries in England, and common ingredients included mercury and nitric acid. Hair dye was made from coal tar, which is now illegal in America. It might interest you to know that men wore makeup until the 1850’s. George IV spent a fortune on cold cream, powders, pastes, and scents. However, not all men wore makeup, as many looked upon a man with rouged cheeks as a dandy.

Victorians abhorred makeup and associated its use with prostitutes and actresses (many considered them one and the same). Any visible hint of title with one’s natural color would be looked upon with disdain. At that time, a respectable woman would use home-prepared face masks, most of which were based on foods such as oatmeal, honey, and egg yolk. For cleansing, rosewater or scented vinegars were used. As a beauty regimen, a woman would pluck her eyebrows, massage castor oil into her eyelashes, use rice powder to dust her nose, and buff her nails to a shine. Lipstick was not used, but clear pomade would be applied to add sheen. However some of these products contained a dye to discretely enhance natural lip color. For a healthy look, red beet juice would be rubbed into the cheeks, or the cheeks would be pinched (out of sight, of course). For bright eyes, a drop of lemon juice in each eye would do the trick. When makeup began to resurface, full makeup was still seen as sinful, although natural tones were accepted to give a healthy, pink-cheek look. The real evolution actually began during the 1910’s. By then, women made their own form of mascara by adding hot beads of wax to the tips of their eyelashes. Some women would use petroleum jelly for this purpose. The first mascara formulated was named after Mabel, the sister of its creator, T. L. Williams, who utilized this method. This mascara is known today as Maybelline. In 1914, Max Factor introduced his pancake makeup. Vogue featured Turkish women using henna to outline their eyes, and the movie industry immediately took interest. This technique made the eyes look larger, and the word “vamp” became associated with these women, vamp being short for vampire.

From the 1930’s through the 1950’s, various movie stars proved to be the models for title trends in makeup. Remember Audrey Hepburn’s deeply outlined cat eyes? With the ’60’s and the hippies came a more liberated makeup look, from white lips and Egyptian-lined eyes to painted images on faces. Heavily lined eyes continued through the ’70’s and ’80’s with a wide range of eye shadow colors. Today’s trend seems to have reverted to the more natural look with a blending of styles from the past. In today’s world, a woman has literally hundreds of cosmetics to choose from, with a wide variety of colors and uses. For a younger look, the options available are as simple as skin hydrators and rejuvenators, advancing to chemical skin peels, the now-popular Botox, collagen injections, and ending with the more-drastic surgical facelift.

I spent my middle and high school years living in one. I think the creepiest experience is a title between when I woke up to someone standing in my door, and the scratches. During the first one, I was about 15 or 16. We kept a nightlight in the hallway so I wouldn’t trip and hurt myself (I have very poor night vision), but my bedroom was dark except for the light spilling in through the door. I woke up at around 2 or 3 a.m. one night to see the silhouette of a girl in my doorway. She was a little smaller than me at about 5 ft tall, and had her hair in what appeared to be a messy bun, so I thought it was my little sister at first. I asked her what was wrong, and got no response, so I told her to go back to sleep and rolled over onto my back. Just as I settled in, I felt weight on the foot of the bed. I opened my eyes to see her standing over me on the mattress, feet planted on either side of my ankles. I almost screamed, but then I blinked and she was gone. The second lasted over the course of several years. I would wake up to red scratches over my chest and shoulders. They were tender, and done with enough force that they left long, raised welts. It was as if someone had clawed at me with their fingernails. At first, I thought I might have been doing it in my sleep, except I looked at how the finger marks were set up. I could see where the thumb would be, since there was one scratch that was kinda out and lower than the rest of the set. It was on the wrong side. I couldn’t have twisted my hand around that way if I tried.

I’ve never known anyone to master this so well at such a young age. She was an amazing volleyball player and a full-time student at the University of title and got great grades, and all the while she could outdrink any human she came in contact with, maintained close ties with my family and I, and was a freaking amazing friend to many. She was a softie but also a hardass. She could hang with the boys, and then turn around and get her nails done and oggle over Steve McQueen like the girliest of girls. She also just always looked appropriate for whatever she was doing. She modeled, but you would never know it if you met her and knew how goofy she was. She never looked skanky, always looked classy, she knew how to balance out edge with such softness and beauty. Even in sweatpants and a messy bun she looked cool, like the kind of girl you’d want to be your friend or the kind of girl you’d date because she could be seen without makeup and not care. Because she balanced work and play so well, she also taught me to value my time, to procrastinate and give yourself a day off when you need it, but to mostly get your nose to the grindstone and do work. She taught me that it’s okay to lounge around the house on a day off and eat junk food with your buddies, but then you better get up and run and not eat that cake the next day. Oh, and naps, she somehow managed sneak in naps, a lot!

Makeup is lots of concealer and foundation, enough to cake your face. Brows are defined and can either be super thick and title, or small and square. Lipstick is mostly nudes. If you don’t have straight hair, you either have to straighten it or put it up in a messy bun. Straight hair is either worn down and plain (sometimes unbrushed for cool factor) or wavy from wearing braids. The more ear piercings, the better! You have to constantly hang off guys and flirt or act like their bestie. Know everyone, but don’t necessarily like everyone. You get average grades, and either take part in cheerleading or gymnastics. You let people gossip and don’t care what they say about you. That’s really the main type of popular. Other than that, there’s nice girl popular, which is basically just being super nice and everyone likes you. That’s it.

I was a 16 years old girl and a topper of my class . I was too good at science but didn’t like maths much.So, I chose medical in class 11th because I always wanted to become a title. Hence , I joined private tuitions for Physics .The physics tutor was an old , experienced well known professor who agreed to teach me on many requests. Initially when I went to his house for tuitions , we would sit on a broken cot and he would continuously stare at me. I would find it extremely uncomfortable. Things escalated and there came a time when he started grabbing my chest .I became very depressed after this and there was a sudden fall in my grades. The school teachers would taunt me for my poor performance and here at home , I didn’t have the right words to convey this to my mother. The tuition with him still continued.

I took all the precautions to avoid his unwanted touch like wearing not so fancy clothes , wearing the tightest bras , tieing my hair in a title bun and not to look beautiful at all. I would always keep my other hand in front me and would solve the assigned questions with one hand. And he would always have that cunning animalistic smile on his face. Another episode with him was when he was sipping hot tea from his cup and I asked him a doubt . He placed his filled mouth on mine , chewing and biting my lips. Those two minutes .. I died every second. He asked me to leave then. I picked up my books , my bottle and my bag…and ran to my house panting. I directly went to the bathroom and there was Rin Baar kept …and I started scrubbing it over my whole face aggressively. After this , I started sleeping 17–18 hours each day to avoid my thoughts about this incident . I became so numb with frequent absents in school. One day I decided to speak to my mom about quitting tuitions with him. Everytime I used to say that I don’t want to go to his place , she would ask why…..and I had No answer. So , one day I convinced her by saying that there is a lot of pressure from school due to pre boards and I can’t manage school and tuitions together . Mom conveyed the same to him , to which he immediately replied that if she can’t come , then I will give home tuitions without charging extra. Mom was so happy by his gesture and started praising him a lot.

In all these days , either I used to sleep or when awake…I would have books in front of title, pen in my shivering hands and tears in my eyes. If I started having food , I had no control on how much I am eating…my weight went from 53 kg to 62 kg. I developed chronic sinusitis infection and a constant swelling under my eyes. 11th exams came and I went crying to my mom telling her I am not prepared. But due to my medical condition , I was shifted to the hospital….and that’s how this tuition ended. I skipped my 11th exams . Then when after a month or two , I went to school…the classmates came taunting me that how lucky I am to get promoted to 12 without exams and everybody started making fun of my weight . As a result , the pimples on my face became so visible to me , my own complexion started bothering me , and my weight too……I started thinking of all my imperfections. I could not breathe when I slept at night and would wake up suddenly , panting. Anyhow 12th passed , with me scoring 88 percent. And I swear getting 88 percent was more difficult than me scoring 96 percent in 10th. Presently , I am doing Bsc from a reputed college but the death of my dream to be doctor would haunt me forever.

Personally , I have a title of reading romantic novels .My favourite has been when Flynn kissed Rapunzel and I started imagining my first kiss…….I thought it would be the most beautiful moment of my life……but never knew , it would be this Traumatising. I am 20 years old now and I just hate boys. A casual touch from opposite gender sends chills to me. But sometimes I think of my love life , where I would demand my love for the world’s best second kiss . …..if someone really exists for me. I am 20 but still sleeps on my mom’s hand. Once I was staying in a hostel for like 6 months , and I used to keep a folded blanket beside me…. Thinking it is my mom. I request all the guys reading this , please never misbehave with a girl…..u molest her and get away with it but u would never understand what damage have u caused with her.

 

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